Turkish (Türkçe or Türk Dili) belongs to the so-called Altai family of languages, originating from the Altai Mountains in Central Asia. It is part of the Turkish subgroup or the western branch of the Oghuz languages, which also includes the Gagauz and Azerbaijani languages.
Turkish is the native language of Turks in Turkey and the Turkish community in 30 other countries of the world. An official language in Turkey and Northern Cyprus, Turkish amounts around 65-70 million speakers in Turkey and the total number of speakers worldwide is 80 million.
Turkish used different writing systems including an adaptation of the Arabic alphabet. The latter was used to denote an Anatolian Turk from the thirteenth century until November 1, 1928, when the romanization adopted by decision of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk became official.
The Turkish language manifests all the main characteristics that distinguish the Ural-Altai languages from the Indo-European languages. The first one is the absence of grammatical gender. Typologically, it is an agglutinative language. It mainly uses suffixes and a few prefixes. A word can have many affixes, which can be used to create new words. Relationships between words are created by adding suffixes at the end of words. Thus, a verb can be formed from a noun as well as a noun can be formed from a verb stem. In addition to the nominative case, Turkish has five more cases: accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and local.
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